不抛弃,不放弃

“你经历的每个地方、每个人、每件事都要你付出时间和生命,可你从来不付出感情。你冷冰冰地把它们扔掉,那你的努力是为了什么呢?为一个结果虚耗人生?成才,你该想的不是成为特种兵,是善待自己,做好普通一兵。”

“你忽然觉得累到了极点,是不是?你渴望归宿。大家一样,都是希望做个不平常的平常人,可你现在累了,你怀念那些早被你抛下的东西:有点小财产,有份工作,有些朋友,有个老婆,从容平淡,有点私生活。…可就算你找到了以为是归宿的地方,也会发现看不见尽头。归宿就是终点,其实没有归宿,人生没有穷尽。顺便说一句,这是我觉得生活中最有意思的一个部分。”

“不要对一件没做过的事说没有意义。好了,从现在起你已经自由了,没有什么约束你,再也没人管你了,你要对自己负责,或者……不负责。”

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【转载】如何在学术界保持心理健康?

今天看到了缪斯夫人的推文,看得简直涕泪横流。感谢钱岳mm,写出来很多人的心声,更重要的是分享了一些有用的应对之道。

太长不看版:

2017年的时候,著名期刊Nature在全世界范围内调查了超过5700名正在攻读PhD的科研萌新们,结果发现:39%以上的博士有抑郁或者焦虑症状,这一比例是普通人群的6倍以上。调查还发现让他们压力山大的来源主要是对于如何平衡工作和生活的苦恼以及对于未来学术生涯发展的困惑。在学术圈中生存不易,如何让自己尽量保持一个健康平和的心态可能是我们必须补上的一门功课。

小诀窍:

  1. 但是,我不会把我自己和他们比,也不会把我自己和学术界的其他朋友比。每个人的 career path 是很不一样的,每个人的成功也是不能复制的。研究领域不同、研究兴趣和方法各异、研究受众也很不一样。拿自己和别人比完全没什么必要。”
  2. 克服焦虑的不二法门就是享受当下认真工作的专注感所带来的幸福,认真写好每一篇论文,同时在这个过程中,不断地、积极地思考新的研究问题。如果可以专注地做好手头的每一件事情,我们实在不必为“几年之后会发生什么”而担忧。
  3. Find something that keeps you going.而不是每天把所有的意义感都放在发论文上…找点你喜欢的打酱油的方式,全身心投入(但有节制)地打酱油,也是学术界保持心理健康的重要方式。

全文见:https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/jRYM1MD-_YkTiobCjlLBxg

「转载」负责任的旅行指南

最近旅行频率增加,见到的不文明现象也越来越多,并且在一贯自诩有逼格的穷游背包客里也屡见不鲜。仔细思索了一下,很多时候其实是因为大家并不了解如何做一个负责任的行者。因此把穷游「负责任的旅行指南」转载在此,希望大家在踏上新的旅途之前好好学习一下。

原文见:https://rt.qyer.com/travelerguide, 如有不妥欢迎留言。

Guides for a responsible traveler

关于“负责任的旅行”,我们期望达成的目标: 
• 鼓励旅行者与当地居民建立良好的关系,在感受真实旅行体验的同时,为当地人带去合理的经济收益;
• 尊重当地生态环境,努力将旅行对环境的不利影响降到最低。

设立本“负责任的旅行-旅行者指南”的目的是:
• 为我们“负责任的旅行”目标提供具体详实的指导,以及为此目标设定统一的行为标准;
• 为我们的员工和旅行者提供旅行地环境、文化和经济保护意识的教育。

一、旅行者能做什么?
要做到负责任的旅行,首先需尊重当地的文化,所以行前应多做功课,主动了解旅行目的地的方方面面。比如学习一点当地的语言,或者阅读几本有关宗教和文化背景的书籍,都能使你获益良多。只要在这方面付出一点努力,就能使你对当地文化怀有一颗理解和宽容的心,尽情享受旅行带来的乐趣。

以下是一些我们希望旅行者能够遵守的基本行为准则,它们的核心思想就是“尊重”。为什么要出这样一份指南呢?因为我们作为旅行者,只是一个客人,我们的旅行应是负责任的和可持续的,即在我们走过之后,其它的旅行者亦能够拥有同样精彩的旅行。很多旅行者在当地结下了许多深厚的友谊,大家珍视这些情谊,并希望它们能够持续下去。

二、旅行者和当地居民

尊重文化差异
在不同的地方,人们的生活方式千差万别,这正是我们热爱旅行的原因,旅行最大的魅力也在于融入当地文化。在和当地人打交道的过程中,请敞开心扉去接受并适应他们,而不是为了自己的方便和舒适去改变他们。以时间为例:有些地方的人们时间观念不是很强,他们对时间的态度是——顺其自然。急躁不能解决任何问题,你应当保持冷静、乐观和友好。耐心、礼貌和微笑是打开很多扇门的钥匙。为此旅行者应尽量了解:

∙ 提前了解旅行地的传统文化、习俗、宗教、身体语言和饮食习惯,包括社会环境,这是尊重理解的基础,让你对未来的旅程更加期待,也可以避免引起不必要的冲突;
∙ 雇佣当地向导和在当地人经营的旅舍、餐馆、商店消费等是为当地人提供多种工作机会;
∙ 旅行中尽量去认识和了解当地文化和居民,多与当地居民接触和交流,提前学习几句简单的当地方言,这是友谊开始最好的方式;
∙ 多种视角了解旅行地,避免对旅行地文化的偏见。

礼仪和服装
尽量穿着合乎当地标准和特色的服饰,尊重当地的文化和礼仪,比如在贵州的某些地区,如果当地人向你敬酒时,你用手触碰了酒杯,那么就一定要喝完酒杯里的酒。着装习惯也是一样,比如在新疆,即使在夏天,女孩子也尽量不要穿短裤或短裙,因为这对于当地人来说是非常重要的。

摄影和摄像
人们对摄影的敏感性可能会超乎你的想象,在这方面,一些少数民族或偏远地区尤甚。在拍照前,请尽量取得被拍摄者的同意,如果他们拒绝了你的请求,最好是收回你的相机或摄像机,尊重他们!此外,请不要尝试用金钱换来照片,因为事实证明这将诱导当地居民的乞讨行为,不过有时候,被游客拍照是一些人的收入来源,所以提前问清楚非常重要;若你有幸被允许拍照,请尽量在旅行结束后寄回一些照片给他们。人们乐于见到照片上的自己,这样做你的拍摄行为就成为一个双向的交流,而不是简单地“索取”一份美丽的回忆。再次造访时,记得捎上你的祝福。

施舍和捐赠
请不要直接施舍金钱、文具或糖果给当地孩子,因为这会诱导一种“乞讨文化”的产生。施舍本身就在旅行者和当地居民之间建立起了一种不平等的关系,在这种关系里,旅行者是纯粹的“给予者”,施舍行为只能导致“接受者”用贫穷来乞求更多的物质给予,并不能帮助被施舍者通过自己的努力和当地社区的力量来解决贫困问题。

如果你仍然希望通过捐赠来帮助当地,可以通过支援当地慈善机构或民生项目为贫困群体提供长远而有效的帮助,笔和笔记本等文具则最好通过学校或老师发给学生,因为这样孩子们才会知道需要去学校上学才能得到这些,并且直接的给予行为对那些无力买礼物给孩子的家长来说也非常不尊重的。

此外,还可以以恰当的方式向当地居民赠送礼物,或者访问民居时对主人的热情招待回礼,比如埃及人对我国的风油精有迷之喜爱。

友谊
若有幸接到当地居民的盛情邀请,大胆接受吧!这是促进双方互相了解的最好时机。比如,花点时间同他们一同喝茶聊天,能使你得到一窥当地人的日常生活、学习当地文化、了解当地人生活态度的机会,以及欢乐的时光和一连串欢笑,反过来,这同样也是一个让他们了解你的机会。当然,回家后别忘记寄回一些照片给他们,同时不要许下你不能兑现的承诺。

三、旅行目的地消费

旅行者可以通过光顾当地餐厅、超市、购买当地特色产品为旅行地带去经济收益,同时避免过度采购造成当地商品的短缺;

∙当地美食是旅行中绝对不可错过的一部分!我们强烈建议你品尝当地的美食,这样不仅能让你感受更加真实的旅行,同时也是对当地的支持;不要食用由稀有动物或濒危物种制作的菜式;
∙ 尽量从手工艺品制作者手中直接购买,而不是从精品店里购买工艺品,这样不仅能让当地居民获益,同时也能获得货真价实的当地纪念品;
∙ 不要购买用稀有动物、濒危物种制造的商品!这些野生动植物制品绝大多数是非法出售的。同时,你的购买行为会刺激当地的非法野生动物交易。请不要购买以下商品:海龟制品、珊瑚、蛇皮、沙图什(由藏羚羊皮制成)、象牙制品等…
∙ 注意当地关于古董购买和出口的法律条文;
∙ 注意不要购买可能由童工制造的商品;
∙ 关于还价,有时候你可以在购物时发挥你的还价艺术,但是也请记住以下几点:
了解当地的还价习惯,以合理的价格购买商品;但同时要注意掌握火候,因为自己的利得往往是他人的损失;礼貌、有耐心并且坚定,粗鲁不仅让你输掉更便宜的价钱,也输掉友谊; 一旦就价格达成一致后就不要反悔,只有在你真的打算过一会儿再来时才这样说。

四、旅行者和当地环境

无论去哪儿,我们的旅行都会对当地环境造成一定影响。但你可以努力尝试把影响降到最低,并通过参与一些维护生态平衡甚或改善生态环境的项目来抵消影响。

环境污染和垃圾处理是一个世界性难题。在一些地方,垃圾处理和废弃物回收再利用的系统并不完善,这使当地面临的环境问题更加严重。我们建议你在购物时用自己携带的环保袋装东西,尽量不要使用塑料袋。在搭乘公共交通时,不要以为把垃圾扔到垃圾桶里就万事大吉,也许下一秒,它们就被从窗口扔了出去。最好能把垃圾收集起来,到达下一个城镇或旅店后再处理掉。 我们同样需要关爱自然环境。徒步旅行中,记住永远不要把水源处当成厕所,尽量不要在河流湖泊附近使用肥皂和洗发水。

有些地区缺乏环境意识的教育,因此当地人并不知道他们乱扔垃圾的行为会破坏环境。作为负责任的旅行者,我们的目标是用行动来传播环境意识。如果你身体力行地投入,你会发现你的行为会对当地居民产生潜移默化的影响,这对环境保护的作用是极其深远的。

选择拥有环保政策和当地社区项目的旅行社。

五、住宿

在旅途中入住旅馆时,尽量做到以下事项:
∙ 离开房间或不需要使用电器时关掉空调、电视和电风扇等电器,电视尽量切断电源而不是维持在待机状态,因为待机状态中的电视同样会耗电;
∙ 在一些国家,厕纸和卫生棉不得扔入厕所中,因为当地的污水处理系统无法处理非排泄物,忽视这一点可能会引起厕所堵塞甚或排泄物外溢;
∙ 尝试寻找环保型的旅馆,比如使用可再生能源等;
∙ 如非必要,酒店提供的毛巾可以多次使用,不必每天更换清洗;

六、旅行交通工具

∙ 尽量选择公共交通,在一些国家中使用公共交通设施,注意不占用特殊人士座位或设施;
∙ 只在必要时开启交通工具内的空调设备。

七、旅行中的用水

时刻节约用水,即使是在有充足水资源的国家,因为净水工程需消耗能源,过度用水还会导致水位下降,进一步造成污染。
∙ 选择淋浴而不是泡浴;
∙ 不要让水一直流,所需水量减少时相应调低出水量,刷牙、涂沐浴露洗发水时关闭水龙头;
∙ 自驾旅行时减少途中过度洗车,交通工具在出发前清洗干净并在旅行途中保持内厢和窗户清洁即可。

八、关于野生动物

注:“动物”指得是鸟类、海生动物、爬虫类和其它一般动物,“野生”指任何没有被驯化的动物,包括笼子里的大象及海洋馆的鲸类等。

建议旅行中尽量减少涉及的活动和注意事项:
∙ 不要观看动物经训练后非自然的娱乐性表演,如海豚表演,马戏团动物表演等;
∙ 不与被圈养的海豚或其他水生动物游泳,这种行为可能会对游客及野生动物本身造成伤害;
∙ 不把野生动物装扮成拍照的道具,如:跳舞的灰熊,会表演节目的猴子和任何抱着动物拍照的行为;
∙ 不要为了吸引动物靠近而发出特定声音,如拍手、吹口哨或学鸟叫等,这样会影响动物的行动和生活模式,让它们受到惊吓甚至陷入危险;
∙ 不要触摸野生动物,人类会有遭到动物袭击或跟动物之间相互传染病毒的危险。大多数野生动物的行为不可预测,也不习惯与人类亲近,故经常性被触摸会给动物习性带来极大的干扰,导致它们不能正常地生活;
∙ 不要喂食野生动物,如在游船观光时向船外抛食物,利用食物吸引动物,或者在营地或者野餐地留下食物,喂食会扰乱动物自然的捕食模式并且会使动物养成依赖而不去学习捕食技巧,习惯了被喂食的动物会跑到人类居住的地方偷食和侵害庄稼,猎捕牲畜和家禽,造成许多麻烦;
∙ 不要采摘花草,拣化石、石头和贝壳,自然环境应受到保护不被破坏,否则终有一天会什么都不剩,采摘植物或者植物的一部分,都可能会威胁到整个植株的生命
∙ 不要购买不可持续生产的野生动植物商品,包括珊瑚、龟壳、象牙、河马牙齿、大象皮毛、贝壳、野生动物皮草和硬木等,这些都是濒临灭绝的物种,购买这些商品会刺激更多猎杀野生动植物的行为。

涉及野生动植物的旅行安排需要时刻牢记的:
∙ 遵守园区交通规定,尤其是车速、驾驶时间和越野驾驶的规定等;
∙ 不得为了拍照或者更好地观赏而追逐动物或者把幼崽带离其父母,与动物保持足够的安全距离
∙ 不要站立在珊瑚上或捆绑珊瑚;
∙ 不要在野生动植物旁吸烟;
∙ 为野生动物拍照时不要使用闪光灯;
∙ 夜间行驶时,避免把灯光长时间地直接照在动物身上;
∙ 不要靠近繁殖地点,包括巢,洞穴等;
∙ 尽量从侧面靠近动物不要让他们感觉到威胁;
∙ 我们不鼓励通过投食喂养的方式来让迷路的动物跟随,最好的做法应该是无视他们并离开。

九、旅行中的垃圾问题和减少浪费

垃圾在许多国家是一个非常严重的问题,那些国家只有有限的、甚至完全没有废物处理设施,更不要说废物回收再利用设备。解决垃圾问题的首要任务是减少资源使用,从而减少浪费,然后尽量保证废物以最合适的方式被处理掉。

控制废物增长
• 建议旅行者不使用任何商店提供的塑料袋并减少在其它用途上使用塑料袋(比如收集垃圾,防水等);
• 旅行中大部分情况下有饮用水的补给,建议旅行者自带水壶,尽量减少瓶装水的消费,以减少塑料瓶垃圾;
• 宿营时尽量使用可多次利用的食物器皿,不用锡纸、塑料袋、一次性的盘子杯子和刀子。

垃圾
许多旅行者已经习惯携带一只垃圾袋专门用来收集沿途的垃圾,这是非常好的做法。需要注意的是在处理这些垃圾时,不要简单地把它们扔到火里烧掉。你应该把垃圾带到下一个城镇再处理掉。
∙ 负责任地处理垃圾。如果不确定附近的垃圾箱会被定期清理,就把垃圾带到能够被妥善处理的地方;
∙ 不乱扔烟头,如随便扔在路上、树丛中或者抛出船外等,而要放进垃圾箱或者垃圾袋里。建议吸烟者自带便携烟盒,胶片盒子就是一个即方便又易除味的小容器;
∙ 食物垃圾——包括苹果核等——不能扔在树丛里或者抛出船外等,而应扔到垃圾箱里。 注:橙子皮在适宜的气候里需要6个月才能完全分解,这会在很长时间内影响环境。 另外,它会使误食的野生动物中毒,还会吸引凶猛的动物来到人类活动的地方。所以,许多国家公园都禁止随地乱扔食物垃圾;
∙ 旅行者在徒步过程、景区或其他地区可以收集垃圾并在结束后妥善处理,让当地环境比我们到达前更美丽;
∙ 乘船时,应该把垃圾带到岸上处理,不要扔出船外或者藏在岩石背后。

十、旅行中的古迹游览

∙ 不要触摸古代碑刻,因为手上的油脂、酸性物和污垢会腐蚀碑刻;
∙ 拍照时不开闪光灯,因为亮光会破坏壁画等古迹;
∙ 不要捡拾碎石,化石或者陶瓷化石,那都是景点的一部分;
∙ 沿着修葺好的小路走,不乱走乱窜;
∙ 绝不攀爬、翻越古迹或墙壁。

十一、关于徒步旅行

建议尽量熟知当地对徒步的法律法规。为避免破坏环境,应该坚持以下的一般性建议:

在已有小道的地方:
∙ 集中在小道上走路;
∙ 排成一列纵队走在小道中间,即便原始环境的地面潮湿或者泥泞;

在小道尚未形成的地方:
∙ 分散行走以免足迹重复形成小道;
∙ 避开刚开始出现人为破坏痕迹的地方。
∙ 只有在没有其它选择的情况下才直接在植被上行走。当要穿过田地或种植地时,我们建议尽量先得到主人的同意并排成纵列小心地沿着边缘行走。

十二、关于野营

野营对环境有着非常显著的影响。除了上述外,旅行者还应降低野营活动对环境的损害。

营地选择
一般性建议:
∙ 集中使用已有的营地;
∙ 控制营地规模,集中在没有植物的地区活动;
∙ 如果在河流旁扎营,尽量选择在当地居民水源下游扎营,以避免污染他们的水源;
∙ 在原始的地区或者野生树丛中扎营,注意定期更换营地,避免在土地上形成大片扎营痕迹或小道;
∙ 如果营地附近有民居或者其他的露营者,要降低音量。

野外厕所
如果营地里没有固定的厕所,要挖一个坑,以下是我们对厕所建造和帐篷使用的一些指导:
∙ 坑必须挖在离水源至少30米(100码)的地方,而且要尽可能的深。在松软土地(如沙质土地)上挖坑前,先在地上倒些水,能使土地变硬防止下陷;(注:细菌在这深度的土壤里最活跃,因此粪便能够更快地降解;)
∙ 使用后掩埋粪便;
∙ 如果有可能,尽量收集、焚烧和掩埋使用过的卫生纸;
∙ 尽量少挖坑,填满一个再挖另一个。

营火
∙ 仅在庆祝或必要时偶尔生火,因为这会消耗自然资源、造成空气污染和掠夺当地人有限的煤炭资源。并没有令人信服的证据证明必须用营火取暖和照明,我们可以很容易地找到别的方法来实现。
∙ 如果由于煮食需要开火,可以选用事先准备的户外气罐和炉头,因为我们无法确定木材是否来自珍惜物种,木炭其实不一定是环保燃料;
∙ 如果有需要,应用已经枯死倒下的树木上取材。不要折断树枝,因为看起来已经枯死的树枝也许只是干掉或者进入休眠期;
∙ 控制火势;
∙ 在先前生过火或已搭建好的生火场地生火;
∙ 只使用纸制品作为引燃材料或投入火里燃烧,含有极少量塑料的材料在燃烧时都会产生有 毒烟雾;
∙ 注意火灾隐患,遵守当地用火规定;
∙ 离开营地时,要把营火灰烬掩埋,确保营火已灭并恢复营地整洁。

野营中的垃圾处理
处理营地垃圾时我们建议:
∙ 焚烧处理:纸张和卡片;
∙ 填埋处理:蔬菜和食品垃圾;
∙ 带走处理:塑料,玻璃和罐头;
∙ 离开前要检查营地所有垃圾包括瓶盖和烟蒂;
∙ 查找并利用当地回收机构。注:在国家公园和一些当地法规特别规定的地方,所有垃圾包括蔬菜食品都要带走。因为 外来的食品垃圾有可能令动物致病,而且会吸引动物接近营地(棕熊,狮子等)。

野营用水
∙ 在生态脆弱的地方如非万不得已不从泉中取水;
∙ 如果没有太阳能热水器则减少为个人梳洗提供热水,因为会需要消耗更多的燃料;
∙ 淋浴涂肥皂时应关掉水龙头;
∙ 废水,如洗餐具水,应在距离水源地30米(100码)以外倾倒处理;
∙ 不在湖泊或溪流中使用不可降解的肥皂。应购买并使用可降解产品;
∙ 不往水道里倾道油腻的废水;
∙ 在大容器里盛水清洗餐具,其用水量比冲洗更少。

十三、旅行安全

对于热爱旅行的人来说,现在可能就是最好的年代。签证开放交通便捷,你向往一个目的地,下一步就能去到。但没人能否认,伴随着每一次出发,未知的目的地等待我们的除了美好的遇见,还有意料之外的安全问题。没有绝对的安全,但须绝对地谨慎——为了减少旅途中出现令人措手不及的状况,建议做好以下准备

∙ 尽量避免前往战乱或不稳定地区,寻求刺激或不负责任的特立独行并不能为你带来什么益处,同时也是对自己家人和朋友极不负责的行为;不要认为有人应该为你的行为买单,包括驻外使领馆;
∙ 采取恰当的健康及安全预防措施,无论在旅行之前或是旅行途中;
∙ 了解在紧急状况下如何得到医疗救治、救助,以及在何种情况下应该联系本国的使领馆;
∙ 养成旅行前购买旅行保险的好习惯,在旅途中通常情况下,一份好的旅行保险比任何远在家乡的朋友都可靠。

穷游锦囊的安全频道为全球主要目的地进行了安全评级,并且制作发布了《旅行安全指南》,可作为旅行目的地选择之参考,以及遇到紧急情况下的安全指南。

《旅行安全指南》详情请见“穷游锦囊”App中的旅行安全频道:
负责任的旅行 - 穷游网

十四、发展的权利

任何人都有权利摆脱贫穷、发展经济,包括我们旅行的目的地的居民,所以请对当地人发展经济和追求物质生活的行为保持理解的态度,虽然这些行为可能会改变当地的初始风貌。当我们看到传统村庄居民的住房,交通和衣着都趋于现代化的时候,可能会感到失望,但同样的改变每时每刻也都发生在我们自己的生活中,我们却从未产生过置疑。通常这些改变是因为旅行目的地的环境和社会基础构架的承载量是有限的,当游客的冲击大到一定程度的时候,这种改变就会发生。

虽然不能改变他们的决定,但并不意味着你对此无所作为。作为一名旅行者,你能够给当地居民分享一些来自我们的经验和建议,以帮助他们形成平衡的发展观。

十五、旅行结束,负责任的旅行却不止于此

结束旅行回家后,可以好好思考该如何帮助你曾经旅行过的地区。你已经为自己的旅行花了些钱,这些钱当然有利于当地经济的发展,除此之外,你还能做得更多。旅行可能让你对当地的环境、社会和文化有了一定了解,你可以在力所能及的范围之内帮助维持他们的文化传统,比如结束旅行返回后,通过客观的游记或照片记录和传播当地文化,诚实地评价目的地,将积极的旅行经验告诉大家。钱并不是唯一稀缺的资源,你的时间或专业知识也是宝贵的财富。

十六、十二条旅行小建议

鉴于“负责任的旅行”所涉及的方面及细节非常多,所以我们准备了关于“负责任的旅行”的十二条小建议,方便旅行者记住和践行:

1. 行前多做功课,了解旅行目的地宗教信仰、文化、禁忌、价值观等知识。
2. 学习并尽量使用一些当地语言,别担心出丑,小小的幽默能迅速拉近人与人之间的距离。
3. 前往某些文化差异显著的目的地,应提前了解我们日常的身体语言在当地是否有特殊的含义。
4. 支持当地产业、吃当地的食物、使用当地的公共交通,这能帮助你融入当地生活,了解当地居民的生活状态。
5. 凡事需三思。以稀有物种的保护为例,也许你在以此物种作为食材的餐馆里吃饭时、在售卖此物种周边制品的商店买东西时,不知不觉中也加速了它们的灭亡。
6. 选购纪念品时尽量购买当地的手工艺品,支持当地产业,同时也要把握还价的尺度。
7. 尊重当地宗教和文化对穿着的要求,慎重选择衣着,尤其是泳装。
8. 对人物拍照和录影前,应先征得他们的同意,并尽量在旅行结束后把你的作品寄送一份给他们,分享快乐。
9. 不要轻易给任何人施舍,无论是礼物或金钱。把钱用来支持当地学校、诊所或其它发展项目往往是更有建设性的帮助。
10. 除了照片什么都不要带走,除了脚印什么都不要留下——像爱护自己的家一样爱护当地环境。
11. 旅行结束回家后,考虑如何为给予你美丽回忆的地方出一份力。
12.微笑——做冷静、乐观、友好的旅行者。

十七、参与共建“负责任的旅行-旅行者指南”

必须承认目前包括我们自己在内所做的远非完美,但我们正不断从旅行者和目的地居民处收集反馈意见,提高行为标准并努力达成目标。

• 本指南虽然不具备任何法律约束力,但通过我们十几年来和众多旅行者的共同讨论及研究,已经成为了一个众多旅行者自愿实施的机制;
• 本指南将处于不断更新中,我们欢迎你通过各种渠道给予我们反馈意见。

反馈渠道:
Email: rt@qyer.com
微信公众号:穷游锦囊(qyerguide)

[转载]你是我世界起点,我是你荆棘冠冕

今天看到一篇很好的文章,关于逝去的长辈。其实一直想写一篇纪念奶奶的文章,然而曾经并不常走动,真到下笔时感觉那么艰涩,删了又写写了又删,终归还是不满意。所以不免感谢今天这篇文章的作者,把那些细碎的、复杂的、难以捉摸的感受娓娓道出,把我堵在心头的遗憾一点一点卸下来。

————— 转载自骞予酱的简书————————–

http://www.jianshu.com/p/4c5c00fc9453

往返两个多月,看着医院门口的树掉落最后一片枯叶,然后又长出了绿尖尖。

经常说离家之后再也没有见过早春,觉得应该是和煦温暖。四季桂会开得撩人,玉兰也能香满半个月。然而这个时候的季节真是残忍,荒地上冒出青草,枯枝上抽出新芽。

你说初春真美好,可是明明都未成气候。

爸爸妈妈在我小时候都是属于不苟言笑的类型,和我在一起的时候除了让我练琴就是让我做数学题。

所以每次放假最喜欢去外公外婆家。

那个时候也没有电脑,我最常干的事情就是坐在窗边的桌子画画,然后外公就会陪我一起画。

外公很胖,手指也粗粗短短的,握着铅笔就着尺子,一横一竖的画。他低着头,铅笔划过白纸的声音,像在我的心上挠痒痒。

这是屋顶,这是窗户,这是桌子。

其实是很平淡无奇的日子。

如果有个上帝视角,大概就是外婆和大人们在客厅叽叽喳喳地打牌。房间里一老一小的背影,低着头画画。小姑娘发出一吸一吸的鼻涕声,时不时回头看一眼电视里在放什么。过了很久很久以后,我还是记的很清楚,记得那个时候我坐在哪一侧,外公坐在哪一侧,那个画画的尺子长什么样子,铅笔被削到多短,画里的房子是什么样子。

所以在我的印象里,外公一直都是很厉害的人。画画很棒,唱《北国之春》是男低音级别的,工程图纸也做的方方正正。年轻的时候去过好多我没去过的国家,还会好多好多我不会的乐器。

就是这么厉害的人,我亲眼看着他一动不动的被120抬上救护车。病危通知书妈妈就抖着手签了好多回,几次外公都在鬼门关前溜达又被拉了回来。整整十天没法进食,一点点看着胖胖的外公瘦了下去。那双那么会画画的手,密密麻麻的都是针眼。

心里难过的情绪,像是被戳破了一样,化成一滩水涌了出来。

S说自己已经蛮久没有回家了。上一次去爷爷家的时候还是大三。

有次她印象很深刻,在爷爷家里吃饭。吃到一半,爷爷突然记起来什么,慢慢地说,囡囡这里新开了个游乐场,里面玩的东西很多,等会吃完饭我带你去看看。

S经过过那个游乐场,小镇上新开的,里面有了5米高的自由落体,迷你版的摩天轮。可是S在上海的这几年,早就玩遍了欢乐谷锦江乐园了。

S哭笑不得,哭丧着脸说,爷爷,我已经22了。爷爷哦了一声就没再说话。

我说,那后来你有去那个游乐场吗?

她说,没有啊,第三天我就回上海了。后来想去那个游乐场也没机会了。

爷爷去年中风,后来再一次见到他的时候,就一直躺在床上了,讲话都不是很利索。

Q从小和奶奶并不是很亲,因为他们家在外省,只有逢年过节才会回老家看到奶奶。印象里奶奶好像也是更喜欢别的兄弟姐妹。青春期的别扭让Q也不是特别愿意亲近老人。

奶奶被查出肝癌晚期后,爸爸把她从老家的村子里接过来住了两个月。

Q说,奶奶经常坐在客厅的沙发上看电视,每次放学回来都会陪她看会儿电视,说几句话。那个时候中央八套特别喜欢播台湾的家庭伦理剧,奶奶就会拉着Q说这个电视里的女人多么多么坏。Q也会顺势装的好奇的样子问这个男人和这个女人什么关系之类之类的。

后来奶奶要回老家之前,给了Q几张崭新的20元。她说那是出来前在村里的信用社换的,让Q买早饭吃。Q当时印象特别深刻,好像总共五张20元,每一张都崭新崭新的。她怕和别的钱搞混,把这几张单独放了好久,一直都没舍得花。

几个月后,奶奶在老家去世。

有一天晚上Q在家里睡觉的时候,突然觉得有一双很冷的手,握住了她露在被子外面的脚,然后再轻轻地把脚放回被子里面。

Q醒来以后觉得,一定是奶奶回来了,在给她盖被子。

离家之后时间过得很快,莽莽撞撞地接受成长,卯足了劲往前跑。你哪里知道有终点呢,只想着跑总比走来的快些吧。明明稚气未脱,却总有鲜衣怒马看尽花的猖狂,学到不一定多,戾气却增长不少。

但还是觉得踮着脚才能拉开柜子的日子就是昨天。明明前天你还给我穿好雨衣带我去公园。从来不敢想你可能会离开这件事情。

你是我世界起点,我是你荆棘冠冕。

把爱与亏欠,揉成一圈。

心里怀念的人,见了萤火,也怀疑是从自己身里出来的游魂。

想要你活得长长久久,想要你无痛无病无灾。

想把月光温了给你下酒,想让你从我的眼里看到他乡暮春的三月。

我会一直跑的,虽然不知道终点在哪里。

但是跑总比走来的快些吧。

然后再像以前一样,飞奔着扑进你的怀里。

这个世界会好吗

“Nobody tells this to people who are beginners, I wish someone told me. All of us who do creative work, we get into it because we have good taste. But there is this gap. For the first couple years you make stuff, it’s just not that good. It’s trying to be good, it has potential, but it’s not. But your taste, the thing that got you into the game, is still killer. And your taste is why your work disappoints you. A lot of people never get past this phase, they quit. Most people I know who do interesting, creative work went through years of this. We know our work doesn’t have this special thing that we want it to have. We all go through this. And if you are just starting out or you are still in this phase, you gotta know its normal and the most important thing you can do is do a lot of work. Put yourself on a deadline so that every week you will finish one story. It is only by going through a volume of work that you will close that gap, and your work will be as good as your ambitions. And I took longer to figure out how to do this than anyone I’ve ever met. It’s gonna take awhile. It’s normal to take awhile. You’ve just gotta fight your way through.”—Ira Glass

“如果你没有好奇 心或焦虑感当中的一个,也许就不是特别适合念博士。 我在出来前,有一个美国朋友,很好的一个朋友,原来也是 MIT 的毕业生,他跟我说, 如果你不想说些什么话,你不想去跟别人争论,你不想去改变一个现状——这个现状可以是 学术的现状也可以是现实当中的现状,也许就不是特别适合念博士。”

今天看paper的时候无意间看到了一个CCER未曾谋面的师兄的主页。看了他的文章,学术的与非学术的,有谈为何读博士,有谈怎样做研究,也有谈及早年的支教体验、人生挣扎。看到11年在西海固的文章,忽然就很感动。原以为自己已经很麻木、对这个世界很疏离,可每次面对真实的吾国吾民的时候还是会心跳加速、热泪盈眶。如果对他人的受难和世界的不完美不能做到充耳不闻,又怎能波澜不惊地去当一个精致的利己主义者?

无数次问自己,为什么会走到这里?为什么会做一份充满焦虑和挫败的工作?为什么明明觉得焦虑和挫败还是不肯放弃?原因很复杂,也许最主要的就是自己那份“不相信”。不相信我只能停留在这个水平,不相信这份工作没有价值,不相信真理和意义会在毫无作为的时刻轻易显现,不相信坐以待毙。

很多年前梁漱溟的父亲走之前问他,“这个世界会好吗?” 他说,“我相信世界是一天一天往好里去的。” 我也相信。

 

[转载]6 Red Ocean Traps You Should Know

Very good resources for MBA teaching and for daily food for thoughts. The Google Glass case is worth of an in-depth discussion. Originally published at https://www.blueoceanstrategy.com/blog/six-red-ocean-traps-you-should-know/#.  Would kindly direct readers to the website for more information.

Some quick explanation for Red Ocean/Blue Ocean strategy (http://txmqstaffing.com/fishing-in-a-blue-ocean/):red-ocean-vs-blue-ocean-strategiesFor more visual representations, see: https://www.blueoceanstrategy.com/tools/


The mental models that undermine market-creating strategies


W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne

When it comes to building a blue ocean, what organization wouldn’t want to have an offering like Google’s Search division? Its search engine is easy, fast, accurate – with an underlying algorithm that instantaneously sorts and ranks documents, images, and videos, making people more productive in finding information than most ever imagined.Everyone from first graders to senior citizens use it. It’s even become a verb. With nearly 65% of world market share, Google created a veritable blue ocean.

wearable technology

Then there’s Google Glass. Announced to the public in 2012, it was selected by Time Magazine as one of the “Best Inventions of the Year.” With this revolutionary digital eyewear, Google intended to create a new mass market for wearable computers. However, the initial excitement soon gave way to disappointment. Priced at $1,500 and launched with great fanfare, people found Glass more like a high-tech high-end toy than a groundbreaking killer app gadget that will revolutionize the human experience. And as wearable tech its futuristic look tended to side more with the weird than the fashionable not to mention the serious privacy issues it raised. Less than two years after the launch of the prototype, Glass was sent back to the lab for redesign.

What went wrong? And what should the team behind Google Glass’s reset do differently to avoid a repeat scenario and create instead a blue ocean like Google’s search? For starters it should understand the six red ocean traps. The six red ocean traps are the explicit and implicit assumptions managers often act under in setting out to make market-creating strategic moves. The trouble is, instead of abetting the creation of profitable new markets, they anchor managers in red oceans and prevent them from entering blue waters. It was some of these assumptions that trapped Google in its drive to create a new market with Glass.

What are the six red ocean traps? Are you caught too? Read on.

 

Trap One: Looking to Existing Customers for Insight into Creating New Demand


Generating new demand lies at the heart of any market-creating strategy. But marketing managers – trained to believe that the customer is king – or queen – often assume that in order to generate new demand they must focus on making their existing customers happier.

Customer is king

While having happy customers is a good thing, it is unlikely to create new markets. To do that, an organization needs to turn its focus on noncustomers, for they hold the greatest insight into the points of pain and intimidation that limit the size and boundaries of an offering’s industry. A focus on existing customers, by contrast, tends to drive organizations to offer better solutions for them than what competitors currently offer – but keeps companies moored in red oceans. Just think: How many ground-breaking ideas have you received by asking your existing customers how to make them happier?

noncustomers

Consider the orchestra industry. To create new demand, orchestras sought to understand how to make existing customers happier hosting, for example, even more renowned guest soloists. These efforts, however, were largely made irrelevant, when Andre Rieu and his Dutch orchestra, the Johann Strauss Orchestra, turned their attention to the ocean of noncustomers. Noncustomers revealed a host of factors that discouraged them from ever attending an orchestra performance from the lengthy and sophisticated musical pieces played, to the expected dress code and audience protocols that were unknown to them, to the fancy theaters, and more. The result is that Andre Rieu created a non-intimidating orchestra experience enjoyed in stadiums not traditional venues, with dancing in aisles, a focus on a highly accessible, enjoyable repertoire of waltzes, and laughter. For more than ten years his world tours have been in the top twenty-five billboard tours right alongside Bruce Springsteen and David Bowie. Andre Rieu created new all new market space, introducing an ocean of once noncustomers to the beautiful world of classical music.

Noncustomers, not customers, hold the key to creating new markets.

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Trap Two: Treating Market-Creating Strategies as Niche Strategies


The field of marketing has placed great emphasis on using ever-finer market segmentation to identify and capture niche markets. Though niche strategies can be very effective, uncovering a niche in an existing space is not the same thing as identifying a new market space.

Delta’s short-lived Song Airlines, for example, targeted a distinct customer segment – stylish professional women travellers — who presumably had needs and preferences different from those of businessmen and other passengers. The strategy was intended to fill a gap in the existing market. But the segment proved too small to be sustainable, let alone generate a blue ocean of new market space.

Market segmentation - a red ocean trap

Successful market-creating strategies, in contrast, “desegment” markets by identifying key commonalities across buyer groups that could help generate broader demand. The British food chain “Pret A Manger,” for example, created a new market space of sustained profitable growth in the prepared lunch market by desgementing three customer segments -restaurant-going professionals, fast food customers, and the brown bag set – based on their key commonalities: they wanted a lunch that was fresh and healthful, wanted it fast and at a reasonable price.

Market creation isn’t about uncovering a niche in an existing market.

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Trap Three: Confusing Technology Innovation with Market-Creating Strategies


R&D and technology innovation are widely recognized as key drivers of market development and industry growth, so managers would be forgiven for assuming that both are key drivers in the discovery of new markets. But market creation is not inevitably about technological innovation. Starbucks turned the coffee industry on its head by shifting its focus from commodity coffee sales to the customer experience. Or consider JCDecaux, which unlocked a blue ocean in outdoor advertising by providing and maintaining “street furniture” for municipalities in exchange for prime stationary downtown locations for ad displays. These strategic moves opened new markets without any bleeding-edge technology.

segway failed to create new market

Even when technology is involved, however, it is not the reason that new offerings like Google’s search engine, Intuit’s Quicken, Wikipedia, or Uber are successful. Such products and services succeed because they offer buyers a leap in value – they are so simple to use, fun, and productive that people fall in love with them. This trap is one that Google Glass fell into. Google Glass may have represented a technology innovation. However, it was not a value innovation. It was too conspicuously high-tech to provide real style and fashion and it set off alarm bells of privacy violation, causing bars, movie theaters, hospitals, locker rooms, classrooms and more to ban its use. To get out of this trap Google should aim to rejuvenate Glass by focusing on value innovation, not technology innovation. Unless it makes buyers’ lives more productive, less risky, more stylish and fun, and easy to use it won’t unlock a blue ocean the way Google’s search engine did.

value innovation

Value innovation, not tech innovation, is what launches commercially compelling new markets. Successful new products or services open market spaces by offering a leap in productivity, simplicity, ease of use, convenience, fun and fashion, or environmental friendliness.

 

Value innovation and NOT tech innovation is key to creating new markets.

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Trap Four: Equating Creative Destruction with Market Creation


Joseph Schumpeter’s theory of creative destruction lies at the heart of innovation economics. Creative destruction occurs when an invention disrupts a market by displacing an earlier technology or existing product or service. In Schumpeter’s framework, the old is incessantly destroyed and replaced by the new.

creative destruction

viagra example of nondestructive creation

But market creation does not always involve destruction. It also involves nondestructive creation where new demand is created without displacing existing products or services. Viagra, for example, established a new market in lifestyle drugs without making any earlier technology or existing product/service obsolete.

Nondestructive market-creating moves offer solutions where none previously existed. And even when a certain amount of destruction is involved, nondestructive creation often plays a larger role than you might think. Nintendo’s Wii game player, for example, complemented more than replaced existing game systems, because the Wii attracted younger children and older adults who hadn’t previously played video games.

Conflating market creation with creative destruction not only limits an organization’s set of opportunities; it can also build resistance to market-creating strategies within established companies and lead start-ups to unnecessarily take on larger companies with multiple times the resources and market reach. Commercially compelling new markets are at least as much —if not more —about nondestructive creation as they are about disruption.

Market creation isn’t necessarily about creative destruction, it can involve nondestructive creation.

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Trap Five: Equating Market-Creating Strategies with Differentiation


In a competitive industry companies tend to choose their position on what economists call the “productivity frontier,” the range of value-cost trade-offs that are available given the structure and norms of their industry. A commonly chosen strategic position is differentiation, meaning that companies stand out from competitors by providing premium value; the trade-off is usually higher costs to the company and higher prices for customers. Many managers assume that market creation is the same thing. In reality, a market-creating move breaks the value-cost trade-off. It pursues differentiation and low cost simultaneously. A market-creating move is a “both-and,” not an “either-or,” strategy.

trade-off quality or low cost

When companies mistakenly assume that market creation is synonymous with differentiation, they focus on what to improve or create to stand apart and pay scant heed to what they can eliminate or reduce to simultaneously achieve low cost. As a result, they often inadvertently become premium competitors in an existing industry space rather than discovering a new market space of their own. Tesla, with its lofty price and all the differentiated advantages of its vehicles (speed, beauty, luxury, and environmental friendliness), has been such a premium competitor in the existing luxury segment of the automobile market.

Successful as Tesla is in the large luxury segment, the overall size of this segment is small – in the US the overall luxury segment takes up 10% of the total automobile market at best and Tesla’s share in this market remains tiny. To achieve its promise to electrify the automobile industry, Tesla needs to significantly lower the sticker price and cost of its vehicles. Until it does, it won’t open up an expansive blue ocean of commercial opportunity.

Market-creating strategies break the value-cost trade-off.

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Trap Six: Equating Market-Creating Strategies with Low-Cost Strategies


Low cost strategies

When an organization sees market-creating strategies as synonymous with low-cost strategies, they focus on what to eliminate and reduce in current offerings and largely ignore what they should improve or create to increase the value of offerings.

A market-creating strategy takes a “both-and” approach: It pursues both differentiation and low cost. In this framework, new market space is created not by pricing against the competition within an industry but by pricing against substitutes and alternatives that noncustomers are currently using. Accordingly, a new market does not have to be created at the low end of an industry. Instead it can be created at the high end, as Cirque du Soleil did in the circus industry, iPhone did in smart phones, and Dyson did in vacuum cleaners.

quality and low cost

Even when companies do successfully create new markets at the low end, their offerings also are clearly differentiated. Salesforce.com, for instance, stands out for its ease of deployment, flexible subscription terms, hassle-free maintenance and ubiquitous access, while IKEA appeals to millions of people around the world with its standardized, stylish and easy to assemble furniture of reliable quality and its family embracing store environment. Both are differentiated and low cost.

At Google’s May 2015 developer conference, Astro Teller, the head of Google’s research lab Google X, did not don Google Glass, the product he had been touting in previous years. Instead he spoke of Google’s mistake in launching the product with such fanfare it sent the signal Google Glass had arrived — from having four skydivers jump out of a zeppelin while wearing Glass to putting Glass in a fashion show. Such fanfare is not the path to test a prototype. That’s the path that proclaims we’ve arrived, which they hadn’t. Teller assured people at the conference that Google now gets it. That in effect, they will strive to avoid the red ocean trap of treating technology innovation as value innovation and will focus on offering a quantum leap in buyer value for Glass’s next rendition. Will Glass ultimately unlock a blue ocean of new market space? That depends on what Google does to address the issues of privacy, looks, and wearability among others. Being cognizant of the red ocean traps will certainly help.

A market-creating strategy involves the pursuit of both low cost AND differentiation.

[转载]Some useful tools for graduate school success

无意间发现的一个在线资源,读完了非常鼓舞,值得订阅。

http://gradlogic.org/category/interview/

  1. Follow your passions and talents 
  2. Pick your advisor and lab wisely [可以好好看看在调研导师的时候需要注意的问题]
  3. Learn to write well
  4. Get confused. Try new things. Risk failure.

外加一个有趣的个人职业发展评估工具:The MyIDP tool can help you identify your strengths.

Be very selective and deliberate when you decide how to spend your time: Your Bag of Apples | Set Realistic Goals.

Creating a To Be list can help you to preserve the essence of yourself.

 

 

 

转载|关于公开产业源支付,专业医疗组织怎么看

Source: http://www.policymed.com/2015/12/study-explores-lack-of-sunshine-act-guidance-from-professional-medical-associations.html

Credit: Policy and Medicine Blog.


As with any large piece of legislation, the Sunshine Act (Open Payments) has conjured up a wide variety of reactions, including concerns about the accuracy of the published data, possible misinterpretations of the published data, and downstream effects on innovative drug development. More fundamentally, given the complexity of the Sunshine Act, simply figuring out what the rules are has proven challenging. A recent research article published in Postgraduate Medicine, has concluded that a lack of professional guidance on how to interpret elements of Sunshine Act may be having a “chilling effect” on physician investigators’ participation in clinical trials and publish results.

A group of researchers delved into various guidances from professional medical associations to get a better understanding of how physicians are views the requirements, and what, if any advice they provide to their members on how to best comply. The article focuses on guidance on how-“nonmonetary assistance” provided by the pharmaceutical industry to those who write medical publications on licensed drugs. Industry often provides this support to authors “to assist with the development of medical publications (including peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews, congress abstracts and oral and poster presentations),” the authors write. “The support often is in the form of medical writing, copyediting and creating artwork for the publications, under the direction of the authors.

Researchers’ Methods

The researchers explored both peer-reviewed and “grey” literature to get the best compilation of industry viewpoints. Grey literature is defined as “articles, in print or electronic form, not published in easily accessible journals and which may not be indexed in formal academic databases” and can be found in search engines such as Google and Google Scholar.

The researchers pored through many articles and publications, placing them into sixcategories: industry-supported/sponsored publications, industry–author relationships, industry–investigator relationships, guidance and/or recommendations related to industry– HCP relationships, ethical considerations around the Act, and industry-sponsored research. If an article or publication did not fit into one of the six criteria, it was excluded. If an article fit into multiple categories, the researchers placed it in the category that was most prominent within the article.

Once a publication was deemed to meet the criteria, the researchers collected its publication type (peer reviewed, “grey,” industry, or academic), the year the article was published, the content type, and created a structured summary of three significant findings/conclusions per publication.

Results

In total, the researchers reviewed fifty-nine articles and concluded that there is limited guidance out there on how to best follow the Sunshine Act mandate. Professional associations tended to focus on clarifying the reporting requirements to their subscribers and readers. While the professional associations websites and articles “contained broad guidance, there was insufficient consistence or consensus from associations around specific concerns, including [transfers of value] for research grants, trial participation and medical publications.”

Most of the publications and articles focused on reiterating the Rules to their readership, ensuring that at the very least, their readers would know that the new Rules existed. Whether the readers would know how to implement those Rules, however, is another question. Most publications tried to provide an outline for covered recipients and healthcare providers, showing them how to prepare themselves and check the data reported.

The arena of medical publications and payments remains murky, at best. The researchers found that the Rules contain no clear direction on how to report industry support of authors. One group found that even when guidance is sought and clarifications were requested, it was tough to discern the real answers and requirements.

Additionally, the authors of the study came to realize that key opinion leaders in the field may be overrepresented in the clinical literature relative to other experts, regardless of their financial relationships, because of the frequency with which they appear in publications and articles offering their expertise. This has the potential to limit the value of disclosures made under the Act.

Conclusion

The researchers determined that while there is some guidance that has been written on the most effective, efficient, and responsible way to implement and follow the Sunshine Act mandate, there is no expert interpretation of the Final Rules. As such, there are not only many gaps in guidance, but also a lack of complete confidence in the guidance that has been written.

The researchers do recognize that a lack of expert interpretation can be due to many reasons, one of which is publications are expecting the law to evolve a bit before it reaches its final form, and contracting an expert opinion at this point in time is a bit too early.

The authors warn that without the expert interpretation of the Final Rules, “the process of assigning a monetary value to publication support may continue to vary across companies. One consequence may be confusion among authors, particularly those working with several different companies, and the risk of disputed Open Payments records.” They believe that education is one of the most important components to ensure that the relationships between the pharmaceutical industry and physicians, and the data published in the Open Payments system, are placed and understood in the proper context.

What is CRISPR-Cas9? | 转载

//players.brightcove.net/245991542/344c319b-6d23-4cbc-975e-c8530534af8a_default/index.html?videoId=4598521180001

Meet one of the world’s most groundbreaking scientists. He’s 34.

So inspired to read about scientific breakthroughs in neuroscience by such an homy-style Chinese guy!

To all my dear friends in biological research: hang in there, and make a difference!

[转载]THE DATA SCIENCE VENN DIAGRAM | Drew Conway

其实是2010年的文章,今天恰巧在朋友圈里翻出来。phd读了3年之后再看这个问题,有了很多有血有肉的感受。 再次提醒自己不要太过迷恋machine learning的那一套,特别是作为卖domain knowledge的social science phd.

最初文章po在作者blog上,没想到这哥们2013年才刚从NYU毕业,真是够年轻。

http://drewconway.com/zia/2013/3/26/the-data-science-venn-diagram

但是更想转在dataists上的po文,下面的网友留言也蛮值得看的,比如对于data mining,KDD,machine learning和data scientist之间的划分。我个人仍然倾向于不随便贴标签,除非某个定义对后续推导至关重要。但是必须承认,至少在marketing圈内,对于data mining和KDD的口碑越来越不积极,往往存有“mindless data manipulation”的暗示。如何用一种符合本圈价值观的方式去推广基于big data和machine learning skills的研究,是写paper是必须注意的。

http://www.dataists.com/2010/09/the-data-science-venn-diagram/

今天发现老板的twitter上已自称marketing scientist,唔。。。果然学界大佬也要脸不红心不跳地自吹自擂啊。

扩展阅读:Data Science through the lens of social science. http://drewconway.com/zia/?p=2378